LIFE-ICARUS – Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension – Insulin Carotids US Scandinavia Study

Principal contacts

Michael H. Olsen - University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Kristian Wachtell - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

Sverre E. Kjeldsen - Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

Study design

The Insulin Carotids US Scandinavia Study (ICARUS) is a two-arm clinical trial and a substudy of the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE) based in the centres at Glostrup, Copenhagen, and Ullevaal, Oslo. The principal aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of Atenolol (50-100mg/day) versus Losartan (50-100mg/day) on carotid artery plaque development in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Individuals were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 55 and 80 years with previously treated or untreated hypertension and electrocardiography signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. All patients provided written informed consent, and the substudy protocol was approved by all relevant ethics committees.

Link to study webpage – 


Key publications

Relative influence of insulin resistance versus blood pressure on vascular changes in longstanding hypertension. ICARUS, a LIFE sub study. Insulin Carotids US Scandinavia. J Hypertens. 2000 Jan;18(1):75-81

Is inappropriate left ventricular mass related to neurohormonal factors and/or arterial changes in hypertension? a LIFE substudy. J Hum Hypertens. 2004 Jun;18(6):437-43

Long-term treatment with losartan versus atenolol improves insulin sensitivity in hypertension: ICARUS, a LIFE substudy. J Hypertens. 2005 Apr;23(4):891-8

Losartan but not atenolol reduce carotid artery hypertrophy in essential hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Blood Press. 2005;14(3):177-83

Long-Term Effects of a Losartan- Compared With an Atenolol-Based Treatment Regimen on Carotid Artery Plaque Development in Hypertensive Patients With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: ICARUS, a LIFE Substudy. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006 Mar;8(3):169-73