Principal investigators

The Lipoprotein(a) Studies Collaboration is jointly led by Peter Willeit (Medical University of Innsbruck) and Sotirios Tsimikas (University of Califonia-San Diego).

Key publication

The key publication from this collaboration has been published in the Lancet on 4 October 2018. Please click on the subsequent links to obtain full-text and a slide deck.


This document gives you access to the manuscript version as accepted by the Lancet.

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Slide deck

This document summarises the key results of our Lancet paper in a set of Powerpoint slides.

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  • Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a lipoprotein composed of apolipoprotein(a) covalently bound to apolipoprotein B of a low-density lipoprotein-like particle.
  • Lp(a) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) has pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic properties and may thereby promote the developement of atherosclerosis.
  • In contrast to other major lipoproteins, there is currently no approved specific therapy available to lower circulating plasma levels of Lp(a).

Overarching aim

Lipoprotein(a) Studies Collaboration (LPASC) has harmonised Lp(a) data from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials. The overarching aim of the consortium is to:

  • better understand the role of Lp(a) as a independent risk marker in the primary vs. secondary prevention setting,
  • characterise the effects of different medications on Lp(a) concentration, and
  • evaluate the usefulness of Lp(a) measurements in risk prediction models over and beyond information on conventional risk factors.

Figure. CVD risk reclassification using Lp(a) information in the Bruneck Study.

Collaborating studies

Cohort Study design Years of baseline Population type Country
4D Clinical trial (Atorvastatin) 1998-2002 Type 2 diabetes + hemodialysis Germany
4S Clinical trial (Simvastatin) 1989-1990 Prior myocardial infarction or angina Scandinavian countries
AFCAPS Clinical trial (Lovastatin) 1990-1993 General population USA
ASTRONOMER Clinical trial (Rosuvastatin) 2002-2005 Asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis Canada
CARDS Clinical trial (Atorvastatin) 1997-2001 Type 2 diabetes UK & Ireland
FHCHILDREN Clinical trial (Pravastatin) 1997-1999 Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia The Netherlands
JUPITER Clinical trial (Rosuvastatin) 2003-2006 General population with C-reactive protein >2mg/dL Multinational
LIPID Clinical trial (Pravastatin) 1990-1992 Prior myocardial infarction or unstable angina Australia & NZ
MIRACL Clinical trial (Atorvastatin) 1997-1999 Acute coronary syndrome Multinational
PRINCE Clinical trial (Pravastatin) 2000 Primary and secondary prevention USA
PROVE-IT Clinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin) 2000-2001 Acute myocardial infarction or high-risk unstable angina Multinational
PROXI Clinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin) 2001-2002 General population USA
REVERSAL Clinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin) 1999-2001 Coronary stenosis USA
TNT Clinical trial (Atorvastatin) 1989-1990 Coronary heart disease Multinational
VISION Clinical trial (Pitavastatin & Atorvastatin) 2006 Hypercholesterolemia Japan