Principal investigators

The Lipoprotein(a) Studies Collaboration is jointly led by Peter Willeit (Medical University of Innsbruck) and Sotirios Tsimikas (University of Califonia-San Diego).

Key publication

The key publication from this collaboration has been published in the Lancet on 4 October 2018. Please click on the subsequent links to obtain full-text and a slide deck.


This document gives you access to the manuscript version as accepted by the Lancet.

Click here to download

Slide deck

This document summarises the key results of our Lancet paper in a set of Powerpoint slides.

Click here to download


  • Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a lipoprotein composed of apolipoprotein(a) covalently bound to apolipoprotein B of a low-density lipoprotein-like particle.
  • Lp(a) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) has pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic properties and may thereby promote the developement of atherosclerosis.
  • In contrast to other major lipoproteins, there is currently no approved specific therapy available to lower circulating plasma levels of Lp(a).

Overarching aim

Lipoprotein(a) Studies Collaboration (LPASC) has harmonised Lp(a) data from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials. The overarching aim of the consortium is to:

  • better understand the role of Lp(a) as a independent risk marker in the primary vs. secondary prevention setting,
  • characterise the effects of different medications on Lp(a) concentration, and
  • evaluate the usefulness of Lp(a) measurements in risk prediction models over and beyond information on conventional risk factors.

Figure. CVD risk reclassification using Lp(a) information in the Bruneck Study.

Collaborating studies

CohortStudy designYears of baselinePopulation typeCountry
4DClinical trial (Atorvastatin)1998-2002Type 2 diabetes + hemodialysisGermany
4SClinical trial (Simvastatin)1989-1990Prior myocardial infarction or anginaScandinavian countries
AFCAPSClinical trial (Lovastatin)1990-1993General populationUSA
ASTRONOMERClinical trial (Rosuvastatin)2002-2005Asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosisCanada
CARDSClinical trial (Atorvastatin)1997-2001Type 2 diabetesUK & Ireland
FHCHILDRENClinical trial (Pravastatin)1997-1999Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemiaThe Netherlands
JUPITERClinical trial (Rosuvastatin)2003-2006General population with C-reactive protein >2mg/dLMultinational
LIPIDClinical trial (Pravastatin)1990-1992Prior myocardial infarction or unstable anginaAustralia & NZ
MIRACLClinical trial (Atorvastatin)1997-1999Acute coronary syndromeMultinational
PRINCEClinical trial (Pravastatin)2000Primary and secondary preventionUSA
PROVE-ITClinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin)2000-2001Acute myocardial infarction or high-risk unstable anginaMultinational
PROXIClinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin)2001-2002General populationUSA
REVERSALClinical trial (Pravastatin & Atorvastatin)1999-2001Coronary stenosisUSA
TNTClinical trial (Atorvastatin)1989-1990Coronary heart diseaseMultinational
VISIONClinical trial (Pitavastatin & Atorvastatin)2006HypercholesterolemiaJapan

Additional publications

LDL corrected for Lp(a)

Impact of correction of LDL cholesterol for Lp(a) cholesterol on cardiovascular risk and classification of patients

Link to full paper