CONTRAST – Convective Transport Study

Principal contacts

Michiel L. Bots, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Muriel P. C. Grooteman, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Nephrology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Peter J. Blankestijn - University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Study design

The Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST) is a two-arm clinical trial based at 29 dialysis centres: 26 in the Netherlands, two in Canada, and one in Norway. The principal aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of low-flux haemodialysis versus on-line haemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in chronic hemodialysis patients. Individuals were eligible for inclusion if they were treated by hemodialysis two or three times a week, for at least two months. The study was approved by both a central medical ethics review board and local ethics committees. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients before enrollment.

Link to study webpage –


Key publications

Effect of increased convective clearance by on-line hemodiafiltration on all cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients – the Dutch CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST): rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN38365125]. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med. 2005 May 20;6(1):8

Short-term Effects of Online Hemodiafiltration on Phosphate Control: A Result From the Randomized Controlled Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST). Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Jan;55(1):77-87

Effect of Online Hemodiafiltration on All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jun;23(6):1087-96

Should We Still Focus That Much on Cardiovascular Mortality in End Stage Renal Disease Patients? The CONvective TRAnsport STudy. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 19;8(4):e61155