CONTRAST – Convective Transport Study

Principal contacts

Michiel L. Bots, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Muriel P. C. Grooteman, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Peter J. Blankestijn - University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Study design

The Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST) is a two-arm clinical trial based at 29 dialysis centres: 26 in the Netherlands, two in Canada, and one in Norway. The principal aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of low-flux haemodialysis versus on-line haemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in chronic hemodialysis patients. Individuals were eligible for inclusion if they were treated by hemodialysis two or three times a week, for at least two months. The study was approved by both a central medical ethics review board and local ethics committees. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients before enrollment.

Link to study webpage –


Key publications

Effect of increased convective clearance by on-line hemodiafiltration on all cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients – the Dutch CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST): rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN38365125]. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med. 2005 May 20;6(1):8

Short-term Effects of Online Hemodiafiltration on Phosphate Control: A Result From the Randomized Controlled Convective Transport Study (CONTRAST). Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Jan;55(1):77-87

Effect of Online Hemodiafiltration on All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jun;23(6):1087-96

Should We Still Focus That Much on Cardiovascular Mortality in End Stage Renal Disease Patients? The CONvective TRAnsport STudy. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 19;8(4):e61155